In a narrower sense, "digital transformation" may refer to the concept of "going paperless".
Digital transformation affects both individual businesses and whole segments of the society, such as government, mass communications, art, medicine. or science 
In November 2011, a three-year study conducted by the MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting concluded that only one-third of companies globally have an effective digital transformation program in place.
The study defined an "effective digital transformation program" as one that addressed
- "The What": the intensity of digital initiatives within a corporation
- "The How": the ability of a company to master transformational change to deliver business results.
MarketAccording to new market research report, published by MarketsandMarkets, the global digital transformation market is expected to grow from $150.70 Billion to $369.22 Billion, at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 19.6%. In the current scenario, North America is expected to be the largest market on the basis of spending and adoption of digital transformation market. The major vendors in the digital transformation market are Apple, IBM Corporation, Oracle Corporation, EMC Corporation, SAP AG, Adobe Systems, CA Technologies, Hewlett Packard (HP), Google, Microsoft Corporation, and many others.
- Erik Stolterman, Anna Croon Fors, "Information TEchnology and the Good Life", in: "Information systems research: relevant theory and informed practice", 2004, ISBN 1-4020-8094-8, p. 689
- Digital literacies: concepts, policies and practices By Colin Lankshear, Michele Knobel, 2008, p. 173
- Digital transformation: the essentials of e-business leadership, by Keyur Patel, Mary Pat McCarthy, 2000, ISBN 0-07-136408-0
- E-government in Canada: transformation for the digital age By Jeffrey Roy, 2006, ISBN 0-7766-0617-4
- Mass Communication And Its Digital Transformation, by Ramanujam, 2009, ISBN 81-313-0039-0
- Art & Computers: an exploratory investigation on the digital transformation of art. PH.D. thesis, published in Cyber Flux News, July 1997, and in the Encyclopedia of Postmodernism, Victor E. Taylor, Charles E. Winquist, London and New York, Routledge, 2001.
- Digital medicine: implications for healthcare leaders, by Jeff Charles Goldsmith, 2003, ISBN 1-56793-211-8
- Digital Transformation By Mark Baker, 2014, ISBN 978-1500448486
- Digital Transformation: A Roadmap for Billion-Dollar Organization (PDF) (Report). Capgemini Consulting. 2011.
- "Digital Transformation Market"
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