HistoryNote-taking has been an important part of human history and scientific development. The Ancient Greeks developed hypomnema which were personal records on important subjects. In the Renaissance and early modern period commonplace books which served a similar function became popular. Philosopher John Locke developed an indexing system which served as a model for commonplace books; for example, it inspired another book, Bell’s Common-Place Book, Formed generally upon the Principles Recommended and Practised by Mr Locke nearly a century later.
Cognitive psychologyNote-taking is a central aspect of a complex human behavior related to information management involving a range of underlying mental processes and their interactions with other cognitive functions. The person taking notes must acquire and filter the incoming sources, organize and restructure existing knowledge structures, comprehend and write down their interpretation of the information, and ultimately store and integrate the freshly processed material. The result is a knowledge representation, and a memory storage.
SystemsMany different formats are used to structure information and make it easier to find and to understand, later. The format of the initial record may often be informal and/or unstructured. One common format for such notes is shorthand, which can allow large amounts of information to be put on paper very quickly. Note-taking is an important skill for students, especially at the college level. In some contexts, such as college lectures, the main purpose of taking notes may be to implant the material in the mind; the written notes themselves being of secondary importance. Historically, note-taking was an analog process, written in notebooks, or other paper methods like Post-It notes. In the digital age, computers, tablet PCs and personal digital assistants (PDAs) are common.
Note-taking is a race against time. The note taker typically is under severe time pressure, and different note-taking styles and techniques try to make the best use of time. The average rate of speech is 2–3 words per second, but the average handwriting speed as only 0.2–0.3 words per second.
Regardless of the medium (paper, computer), note-taking can be broadly divided into linear and nonlinear methods, which can be combined.
OutliningOutlines tend to proceed down a page, using headings and bullets to structure information. A common system consists of headings that use Roman numerals, letters of the alphabet, and Arabic numerals at different levels. A typical structure would be:
- I. First main topic
- A. Subtopic
- 1. Detail
- 2. Detail
- B. Subtopic
- A. Subtopic
- II. Second main topic
- A. Subtopic
Non-linear note-takingThere are many types of non-linear note-taking techniques, including: Clustering, Concept mapping, Cornell system, Idea mapping, Instant replays, Ishikawa diagrams, Knowledge maps, Learning maps, Mind mapping, Model maps, Pyramid principle, Semantic networks, and SmartWisdom.
The following are details about a few.
MappingHere, ideas are written in a tree structure, with lines connecting them together. Mind maps, also referred to as brain-storming are commonly drawn from a central point, purpose or goal in the center of the page and then branching outward to identify all the ideas connected to that goal. Colors, small graphics and symbols are often used to help to visualize the information more easily. This note-taking method is most common among visual learners and is a core practice of many accelerated learning techniques. It is also used for planning and writing essays.
Sentence methodEvery new thought is written as a new line. Speed is the most desirable attribute of this method because not much thought about formatting is needed to form the layout and create enough space for more notes. When taking these notes, you can number them or bullet them. This method can allow the reader to tell where a new thought ends and begins. This strategy is short and helpful, especially when a professor or teacher may need to read the notes.
SQ3RSQ3R is a method of taking notes from written material, though it might be better classed as a method of reading and gaining understanding. Material is skimmed to produce a list of headings, that are then converted into questions. These questions are then considered whilst the text is read to provide motivation for what is being covered. Notes are written under sections headed by the questions as each of the material's sections is read. One then makes a summary from memory, and reviews the notes. (SQ3R—Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review.)
Guided notesSometimes lecturers may provide handouts of guided notes, which provide a "map" of the lecture content with key points or ideas missing. Students then fill in missing items as the lecture progresses. Guided notes may assist students in following lectures and identifying the most important ideas from a lecture. This format provides students with a framework, yet requires active listening (as opposed to providing copies of powerpoint slides in their entirety). Research has shown that guided notes improve students' recording of critical points in lecture as well as their quiz scores on related content.
Electronic note-taking methods
Online note-taking has created problems for teachers who must balance educational freedom with copyright and intellectual property concerns regarding course content.
Professional servicesProfessional notetakers provide access to information for people who cannot take their own notes, in particular the deaf and hearing impaired. Professional Notetakers most frequently work in colleges and universities, but are also used in workplace meetings, appointments, conferences, and training sessions. They are usually educated to degree level. In the UK they are increasingly expected to have a professional note-taking qualification, such as that offered by the Council for the Advancement of Communication with Deaf People (CACDP).
- Comparison of notetaking software
- Category:Notetaking software
- List of mind mapping software
- Cornell Notes
- Branching Notes
- British Journal of Educational Technology (2008) doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00906.x Optimising the use of note-taking as an external cognitive aid for increasing learning Tamas Makany, Jonathan Kemp and Itiel E. Dror http://www.idemployee.id.tue.nl/g.w.m.rauterberg/amme/makany-et-al-2008.pdf
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- Lehmann, F. (1992). Semantic networks in artificial intelligence. Oxford: Pergamon Press.; Sowa, J. F. (1991). Principles of semantic networks: explorations in the representation of knowledge. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
- Kemp, J. (2006). SmartWisdom, Retrieved January 15, 2008, from http://www.smartwisdom.com/
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